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<< return to search Book of hours W.102
Manuscript Overview
References
Bindings & Oddities

Abstract

This finely illuminated and iconographically rich book of hours was made in England at the end of the thirteenth century. The manuscript is incomplete and misbound. Its main artist can also be found at work in a Bible (Oxford, Bodleian Library Ms. Auct. D.3.2) and a psalter (Cambridge, Trinity College Cambridge Ms. O.4.16). The manuscript contains a number of unusual texts, including the Hours of Jesus Crucified and the Office of St. Catherine. The patron of the manuscript is not clear; a woman is depicted as praying in many of the initials, but rubrics in the Office of the Dead mention "freres" (brothers). The imagery is inventive, and the Hours of Christ Crucified are graced with images depicting the funeral of Reynard the Fox in its margins. In the absence of a calendar, it is not possible to locate the origin of the manuscript precisely.

Text Note

The original sequence of the parts of this manuscript cannot be reconstructed with certainty. The Abbreviated Hours were followed by the Hours of the Holy Spirit, the Seven Penitential Psalms, the litany and collects, the Fifteen Gradual Psalms, the Office of the Dead, and the Hours of Jesus Crucified. Whether the Prayers to the Crucified Christ, which were followed by the lections in the life of St. Catharine, came before or after this sequence is an unanswered question.

Hand note

Written in Gothic bookhand (textura semi-quadrata)

Decoration Note

One half-page line drawing; thirty-two historiated initials; minor decorated initials; line fillers; marginalia

Contributors

Principal cataloger: Noel, William

Principal cataloger: Smith, Kathryn

Cataloger: Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Dutschke, Consuelo

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, no. 169, p. 784.


Walters Art Gallery. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949, p. 56, no. 153.


Brieger, Peter H. English Art 1216-1307. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957, p. 222.


Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book. London: Philosophical Library, 1957, p. 273.


McCulloch, Florence. "The Funeral of Renart the Fox in a Walters Book of Hours." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 25-26 (1962-1963): 8-27.


Randall, L. M. C. "Humor and Fantasy in the Margins of an English Book of Hours." Apollo 58 (1966): 482-488.


Sandler, Lucy Freeman, and J. J. G. Alexander. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles. Gothic Manuscripts 1285-1385. Vol. 5. London: Harvey Miller, 1986, pp. 24-26, no. 15.


Alexander, J. J. G., and Paul Binski, eds. Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England 1200-1400. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1987, pp. 356-357, no. 359.


Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. New York: George Braziller, 1988, pp. 102, 221-222.


Randall, Lilian M. C. "An Elephant in the Litany: Further Thoughts on an English Book of Hours in the Walters Art Gallery (W. 102)," in Willene B. Clark and Meradith T. McMunn, eds., Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages. The Bestiary and Its Legacy (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989), 106-133.


Camille, Michael. Image on the Edge: The Margins of Medieval Art. London: Reaktion; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992, pp. 23-30.


Varty, Kenneth. Reynard, Renart, Reinart: And Other Foxes in Medieval England. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press; London: Eurospan, 1999, p. 141.


Mellinkoff, Ruth. Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages. Vol. 2. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1993, no. IX.3.


Gies, Joseph and Frances. Scenes of Medieval Life. London: Folio Society. 2002, p. 158, v. 2


Bildhauer, Bettina and Robert Mills, eds. The Monstrous Middle Ages. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 2003, pp. 47-48, fig. 7 (fol. 56v)


Les Musées de Strasbourg. Homme-animal: Histoires d'un face à face. Strasbourg: Éditions des Musées de Strasbourg. 2004, p. 99, fig. III 11 (fol. 56v)


Bagnoli, Martina. The Medieval World. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2011, p. 149, fig. 131


Dillon, Emma. The Sense of Sound: Musical Meaning in France, 1260-1330. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 243-286, figs. 7.7-18.


Morgan, Nigel, "English Books of Hours, c. 1240–c. 1480." In Books of Hours Reconsidered, edited by Sandra Hindman and James H. Marrow, 66-95. London and Turnhout: Harvey Miller, 2013; 67, 80, 94


These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Christian
Miniature
England
Book of Hours
English
Grotesques
Devotion
13th century

Origin Place

England

Date

Ca. 1300 CE

Form

book

Binding

Non-original Binding

Binding Description

Early twentieth-century worn red velvet over pasteboard

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin. The secondary language of this manuscript is French, Old (842-ca.1400).

Provenance

Created in England, ca. 1300, for an unknown patron

Henry Walters, Baltimore, purchased ca. 1930

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest

<< return to search Book of hours W.102

Origin Place

England

Date

Ca. 1300 CE

Form

book

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin. The secondary language of this manuscript is French, Old (842-ca.1400).

Provenance

Created in England, ca. 1300, for an unknown patron

Henry Walters, Baltimore, purchased ca. 1930

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest

Manuscript Overview

Abstract

This finely illuminated and iconographically rich book of hours was made in England at the end of the thirteenth century. The manuscript is incomplete and misbound. Its main artist can also be found at work in a Bible (Oxford, Bodleian Library Ms. Auct. D.3.2) and a psalter (Cambridge, Trinity College Cambridge Ms. O.4.16). The manuscript contains a number of unusual texts, including the Hours of Jesus Crucified and the Office of St. Catherine. The patron of the manuscript is not clear; a woman is depicted as praying in many of the initials, but rubrics in the Office of the Dead mention "freres" (brothers). The imagery is inventive, and the Hours of Christ Crucified are graced with images depicting the funeral of Reynard the Fox in its margins. In the absence of a calendar, it is not possible to locate the origin of the manuscript precisely.

Text Note

The original sequence of the parts of this manuscript cannot be reconstructed with certainty. The Abbreviated Hours were followed by the Hours of the Holy Spirit, the Seven Penitential Psalms, the litany and collects, the Fifteen Gradual Psalms, the Office of the Dead, and the Hours of Jesus Crucified. Whether the Prayers to the Crucified Christ, which were followed by the lections in the life of St. Catharine, came before or after this sequence is an unanswered question.

Hand note

Written in Gothic bookhand (textura semi-quadrata)

Decoration Note

One half-page line drawing; thirty-two historiated initials; minor decorated initials; line fillers; marginalia

References

Contributors

Principal cataloger: Noel, William

Principal cataloger: Smith, Kathryn

Cataloger: Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Dutschke, Consuelo

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, no. 169, p. 784.


Walters Art Gallery. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949, p. 56, no. 153.


Brieger, Peter H. English Art 1216-1307. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957, p. 222.


Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book. London: Philosophical Library, 1957, p. 273.


McCulloch, Florence. "The Funeral of Renart the Fox in a Walters Book of Hours." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 25-26 (1962-1963): 8-27.


Randall, L. M. C. "Humor and Fantasy in the Margins of an English Book of Hours." Apollo 58 (1966): 482-488.


Sandler, Lucy Freeman, and J. J. G. Alexander. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles. Gothic Manuscripts 1285-1385. Vol. 5. London: Harvey Miller, 1986, pp. 24-26, no. 15.


Alexander, J. J. G., and Paul Binski, eds. Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England 1200-1400. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1987, pp. 356-357, no. 359.


Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. New York: George Braziller, 1988, pp. 102, 221-222.


Randall, Lilian M. C. "An Elephant in the Litany: Further Thoughts on an English Book of Hours in the Walters Art Gallery (W. 102)," in Willene B. Clark and Meradith T. McMunn, eds., Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages. The Bestiary and Its Legacy (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989), 106-133.


Camille, Michael. Image on the Edge: The Margins of Medieval Art. London: Reaktion; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992, pp. 23-30.


Varty, Kenneth. Reynard, Renart, Reinart: And Other Foxes in Medieval England. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press; London: Eurospan, 1999, p. 141.


Mellinkoff, Ruth. Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages. Vol. 2. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1993, no. IX.3.


Gies, Joseph and Frances. Scenes of Medieval Life. London: Folio Society. 2002, p. 158, v. 2


Bildhauer, Bettina and Robert Mills, eds. The Monstrous Middle Ages. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 2003, pp. 47-48, fig. 7 (fol. 56v)


Les Musées de Strasbourg. Homme-animal: Histoires d'un face à face. Strasbourg: Éditions des Musées de Strasbourg. 2004, p. 99, fig. III 11 (fol. 56v)


Bagnoli, Martina. The Medieval World. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2011, p. 149, fig. 131


Dillon, Emma. The Sense of Sound: Musical Meaning in France, 1260-1330. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 243-286, figs. 7.7-18.


Morgan, Nigel, "English Books of Hours, c. 1240–c. 1480." In Books of Hours Reconsidered, edited by Sandra Hindman and James H. Marrow, 66-95. London and Turnhout: Harvey Miller, 2013; 67, 80, 94


Bindings & Oddities

These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Christian
Miniature
England
Book of Hours
English
Grotesques
Devotion
13th century
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