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<< return to search Book of Hours W.220
Manuscript Overview
References
Bindings & Oddities

Abstract

This Book of Hours was created ca. 1450-55 in Bruges by Willem Vrelant and associates. It was commissioned for its first owners, a husband and wife, who are depicted on fols. 138r and 150v, respectively. This book contains eighteen extant miniatures, including many unusual thematic depictions, such as the Buffeting of Christ (fol. 24r) in the Hours of the Cross, and a very Dürer-like depiction of the Holy Face in the Suffrages (fol. 146r).

Hand note

Written in littera cursiva formata

Decoration Note

Eighteen large miniatures (two full-page); decorated initials at major text openings below miniatures (5 lines); small decorated initials at eight text openings (3-4 lines); flourished initials at secondary text openings, "K L" in calendar and versals (2 lines); foliate borders surrounding miniatures with marginalia on pages with double-page miniatures; line fillers mostly in litany (1 line); rubrics in red; text in brown ink

Contributors

artist: Vrelant, Willem, -1481

Principal cataloger: Randall, Lilian M.C.

Cataloger: Ransom, Allison

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Copy editor: Dibble, Charles

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Herbold, Rebekah

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Contributor: Wiegand, Kimber

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

Beraldi, H., Bibliothéque d'un bibliophile, Paris 1885, p. 1, no. 2


Morgand, D., Bulletin 20, Feb. 1887, p. 69, no. 12057


Morgand, D., Catalogue Eugéne Paillet, Paris 1887, p. 67, no. 332


De Ricci, S., and W. J. Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935; p. 796, no. 250.


Delaissé, L.M.J., "An Exhibition of Netherlandish Book Illumination, April 22 through May 12" (Oberlin College), Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin 17/3, 1960, p. 94-113


Farquhar, J.D., Creation and Imitation, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 1976, figs. 11-14, 24, 47, 61, 80, 81, 83, 86


Farquhar, J.D., "The Manuscript as Book", Pen to Press: Illustrated Manuscripts and Printed Books in the First Century of Printing, University of Maryland, College Park, Baltimore 1977, p. 81-96, fig. 22


Marrow, J.H., "Study of the Miniatures" in Beuken, Willem Hendrik, and James H. Marrow. 1979. Spiegel van den leven ons Heren = Mirror of the life of our Lord : diplomatic edition of the text and facsimile of the 42 miniatures of a 15th century typological life of Christ in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Doornspijk: Davaco, p. 74, fig. 2


Jenni, U, Thoss, D., Das Schwarze Gebetbuch (Gebetbuch des Galeazzo Maria Sforza): Codex 1856 der Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien. Kommentar zur Faksimileausgabe, Frankfurt 1982, p. 64, fig. 106


Rogers, N.J., "Books of Hours Produced in the Low Countries for the English Market in the Fifteenth Century," M.Phil, Cambridge University, 1982, p. 300-324


Buttner, F. O., Imitatio Pietatis: Motive der christlichen Ikonographie als Modelle zur Verahnlichung, Berlin 1983, p. 159


Pacht, O., Jenni, U, and Thoss, D., Die Illuminierten Handschriften und Inkunabeln der Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil. -Hist. Klasse, Denkschriften, Vienna, 1983, vol. 1, pp. 88, 91, vol. 2, fig. 102


Cardon, B., Lievens, R., and Smeyers, M., "Typologische Taferelen uit het leven van Jezus: A Manuscript from the Gold Scrolls Group (Bruges, ca. 1440) in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, Ms. Morgan 649," Louvain, 1985, p. 138


Owens, M.B., "Musical Subjects in the Illumination of Books of Hours from Fifteenth-Century France and Flanders", Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1987, p. 413.


Dogaer, G., "Flemish Miniature Painting in the 15th and 16th Centuries," Amsterdam, 1987, p. 103


Plummer, J., "'Use' and Beyond Use,'" followed by "A Bruges Calendar," Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life, exhibition catalog, Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, New York, 1988


Smeyers, M., "A Mid-Fifteenth Century Book of Hours from Bruges in the Walters Art Gallery (MS. 721) and Its Relation to the Turin-Milan Hours," Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 46 (1988): 68, 75


Bravi, G.O., "Codici e incunaboli minitai della Biblioteca Civica di Bergamo," Bergamo, 1989, p. 426


Randall, Lilian M. C. Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. 3. Belgium, 1250-1530. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press in association with the Walters Art Gallery, 1989; pp. 210-219, cat. no. 244


Lacaze, C., "A Little-Known Manuscript from the Workshop of Master Pancraz," in Masters and Miniatures: proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10-13 December 1989), edited by Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt 1991, p. 259


Domínguez Rodriguez, A., et. al., "Libro de Horas de Isabel la Católica," Madrid, 1991, p. 21


Bousmanne, B., "Prolégoménes á la constitution et á l'interprétation d'un corpus des manuscrits attribués au groupe Vrelant: Un aspect de l'enluminure dans les Bays-Bas méridionaux au XV siécle," Ph.D. dissertation, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1994, pp. 24, 226-234


Sotheby’s. Western Manuscripts and Miniatures. New York: Sotheby’s Firm, 1994; p. 97.


Reinburg, Virginia. “Praying to Saints in the Middle Ages.” Saints: Studies in Hagiography. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 141. Edited by Sandro Sticca, 269-282. Binghamton, New York, 1996; pp. 271 (n. 4), 273 (fig. 1).


Bousmanne, Bernard. Item à Guillaume Wyelant aussi enlumineur: Willem Vrelant, un aspect de l'enluminure dans les Pays-Bas méridionaux sous le mécénat des ducs de Bourgogne Philippe le Bon et Charles le Téméraire. Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1997; pp. 37-38, 43, 71, 79-81, 98, 112, 117, 121, 133, 149, 165, 189, 217-219 (no. 1.IV.6;102), 317, 343 (n. 35), 349 (n. 5), 354 (n. 25), 377.


Hindman, Sandra. “Gerard David’s Holy Face.” In The Robert Lehman Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Volume IV:
Illuminations. Edited by Sandra Hindman, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, Pia Palladino, and Maria Francesca Saffiotti, 86-91. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997; p. 89 (ref. under cat. No. 11).


Sponsler, Claire. Drama and Resistance: Bodies, Goods, and Theatricality in Late Medieval England. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1997; pp. 128 (fig. 5), 194 (n. 87).


Noel, William. "Books in the Home: Psalters and Books of Hours." In Medieval Mastery: Book Illumination from Charlemagne to Charles the Bold (800-1475). Edited by William Noel and Lee Preedy, 56-67. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2002; pp. 56 (fig. 1), 63.


Marrow, James H. “Book of Hours in Latin and French: Flanders (Bruges), ca. 1430: Miniatures by the Masters of the Gold Scrolls. NYPL MA 28.” In The Splendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at the New York Public Library. Edited by Jonathan J.G. Alexander, James H. Marrow, and Lucy Freeman Sandler, 283-286. NY: New York Public LibrarySplendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at the New York Public Library, 2005; p. 286 (ref. under cat. no. 63).


Randall, Lilian M.C. “Frontal Heads in the Borders of Parisian and South Netherlandish Books of Hours, ca. 1415-60.” In Tributes in Honor of Jonathan J.G. Alexander: The Making and Meaning of Illuminated Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts, Art, and Architecture. Edited by Susan L’Engle and Gerald B. Gest, 249-268. Turnhout, Belgium: Harvey Miller Publishers, 2006; p. 259, fig. 7.


Reinburg, Virginia. French Books of Hours: Making an Archive of Prayer, C.1400-1600. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012; pp. viii,163 (n. 126), 164 (fig. 24), 174.


These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

14guardsheetr

24guardsheetr

64guardsheetr

77guardsheetr

84guardsheetr

89guardsheetr

99guardsheetr

108guardsheetr

146guardsheetr

148guardsheetr

150guardsheetv

158guardsheetr

187guardsheetr

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Book of Hours
Christian
Flemish
Miniature
Flanders
15th century
Devotion
Painting

Origin Place

Bruges

Date

Ca. 1450-1455 CE

Form

book

Binding

Non-original Binding

Binding Description

Nineteenth-century re-binding from either Belgium or France; black textured leather; upper and lower boards framed by three fillets; possibly original page sewing; spine naturally rounded with five slightly raised bands surrounded by three fillets; endbands in pink and white silk with edge-bead; gilt edges

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Provenance

Completed by followers of Willem Vrelant ca. 1450-1455 in Bruges for unidentified patrons, depicted on fols. 138r and 150v

Sold by Eugéne Paillet, Paris, to Damascéne Morgand, 1887

Henry Walters, Baltimore, acquired before 1931

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest

<< return to search Book of Hours W.220

Origin Place

Bruges

Date

Ca. 1450-1455 CE

Form

book

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Provenance

Completed by followers of Willem Vrelant ca. 1450-1455 in Bruges for unidentified patrons, depicted on fols. 138r and 150v

Sold by Eugéne Paillet, Paris, to Damascéne Morgand, 1887

Henry Walters, Baltimore, acquired before 1931

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest

Manuscript Overview

Abstract

This Book of Hours was created ca. 1450-55 in Bruges by Willem Vrelant and associates. It was commissioned for its first owners, a husband and wife, who are depicted on fols. 138r and 150v, respectively. This book contains eighteen extant miniatures, including many unusual thematic depictions, such as the Buffeting of Christ (fol. 24r) in the Hours of the Cross, and a very Dürer-like depiction of the Holy Face in the Suffrages (fol. 146r).

Hand note

Written in littera cursiva formata

Decoration Note

Eighteen large miniatures (two full-page); decorated initials at major text openings below miniatures (5 lines); small decorated initials at eight text openings (3-4 lines); flourished initials at secondary text openings, "K L" in calendar and versals (2 lines); foliate borders surrounding miniatures with marginalia on pages with double-page miniatures; line fillers mostly in litany (1 line); rubrics in red; text in brown ink

References

Contributors

artist: Vrelant, Willem, -1481

Principal cataloger: Randall, Lilian M.C.

Cataloger: Ransom, Allison

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Copy editor: Dibble, Charles

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Herbold, Rebekah

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Contributor: Wiegand, Kimber

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

Beraldi, H., Bibliothéque d'un bibliophile, Paris 1885, p. 1, no. 2


Morgand, D., Bulletin 20, Feb. 1887, p. 69, no. 12057


Morgand, D., Catalogue Eugéne Paillet, Paris 1887, p. 67, no. 332


De Ricci, S., and W. J. Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935; p. 796, no. 250.


Delaissé, L.M.J., "An Exhibition of Netherlandish Book Illumination, April 22 through May 12" (Oberlin College), Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin 17/3, 1960, p. 94-113


Farquhar, J.D., Creation and Imitation, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 1976, figs. 11-14, 24, 47, 61, 80, 81, 83, 86


Farquhar, J.D., "The Manuscript as Book", Pen to Press: Illustrated Manuscripts and Printed Books in the First Century of Printing, University of Maryland, College Park, Baltimore 1977, p. 81-96, fig. 22


Marrow, J.H., "Study of the Miniatures" in Beuken, Willem Hendrik, and James H. Marrow. 1979. Spiegel van den leven ons Heren = Mirror of the life of our Lord : diplomatic edition of the text and facsimile of the 42 miniatures of a 15th century typological life of Christ in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Doornspijk: Davaco, p. 74, fig. 2


Jenni, U, Thoss, D., Das Schwarze Gebetbuch (Gebetbuch des Galeazzo Maria Sforza): Codex 1856 der Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien. Kommentar zur Faksimileausgabe, Frankfurt 1982, p. 64, fig. 106


Rogers, N.J., "Books of Hours Produced in the Low Countries for the English Market in the Fifteenth Century," M.Phil, Cambridge University, 1982, p. 300-324


Buttner, F. O., Imitatio Pietatis: Motive der christlichen Ikonographie als Modelle zur Verahnlichung, Berlin 1983, p. 159


Pacht, O., Jenni, U, and Thoss, D., Die Illuminierten Handschriften und Inkunabeln der Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil. -Hist. Klasse, Denkschriften, Vienna, 1983, vol. 1, pp. 88, 91, vol. 2, fig. 102


Cardon, B., Lievens, R., and Smeyers, M., "Typologische Taferelen uit het leven van Jezus: A Manuscript from the Gold Scrolls Group (Bruges, ca. 1440) in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, Ms. Morgan 649," Louvain, 1985, p. 138


Owens, M.B., "Musical Subjects in the Illumination of Books of Hours from Fifteenth-Century France and Flanders", Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1987, p. 413.


Dogaer, G., "Flemish Miniature Painting in the 15th and 16th Centuries," Amsterdam, 1987, p. 103


Plummer, J., "'Use' and Beyond Use,'" followed by "A Bruges Calendar," Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life, exhibition catalog, Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, New York, 1988


Smeyers, M., "A Mid-Fifteenth Century Book of Hours from Bruges in the Walters Art Gallery (MS. 721) and Its Relation to the Turin-Milan Hours," Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 46 (1988): 68, 75


Bravi, G.O., "Codici e incunaboli minitai della Biblioteca Civica di Bergamo," Bergamo, 1989, p. 426


Randall, Lilian M. C. Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. 3. Belgium, 1250-1530. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press in association with the Walters Art Gallery, 1989; pp. 210-219, cat. no. 244


Lacaze, C., "A Little-Known Manuscript from the Workshop of Master Pancraz," in Masters and Miniatures: proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10-13 December 1989), edited by Koert van der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt 1991, p. 259


Domínguez Rodriguez, A., et. al., "Libro de Horas de Isabel la Católica," Madrid, 1991, p. 21


Bousmanne, B., "Prolégoménes á la constitution et á l'interprétation d'un corpus des manuscrits attribués au groupe Vrelant: Un aspect de l'enluminure dans les Bays-Bas méridionaux au XV siécle," Ph.D. dissertation, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1994, pp. 24, 226-234


Sotheby’s. Western Manuscripts and Miniatures. New York: Sotheby’s Firm, 1994; p. 97.


Reinburg, Virginia. “Praying to Saints in the Middle Ages.” Saints: Studies in Hagiography. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 141. Edited by Sandro Sticca, 269-282. Binghamton, New York, 1996; pp. 271 (n. 4), 273 (fig. 1).


Bousmanne, Bernard. Item à Guillaume Wyelant aussi enlumineur: Willem Vrelant, un aspect de l'enluminure dans les Pays-Bas méridionaux sous le mécénat des ducs de Bourgogne Philippe le Bon et Charles le Téméraire. Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1997; pp. 37-38, 43, 71, 79-81, 98, 112, 117, 121, 133, 149, 165, 189, 217-219 (no. 1.IV.6;102), 317, 343 (n. 35), 349 (n. 5), 354 (n. 25), 377.


Hindman, Sandra. “Gerard David’s Holy Face.” In The Robert Lehman Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Volume IV:
Illuminations. Edited by Sandra Hindman, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, Pia Palladino, and Maria Francesca Saffiotti, 86-91. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997; p. 89 (ref. under cat. No. 11).


Sponsler, Claire. Drama and Resistance: Bodies, Goods, and Theatricality in Late Medieval England. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1997; pp. 128 (fig. 5), 194 (n. 87).


Noel, William. "Books in the Home: Psalters and Books of Hours." In Medieval Mastery: Book Illumination from Charlemagne to Charles the Bold (800-1475). Edited by William Noel and Lee Preedy, 56-67. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2002; pp. 56 (fig. 1), 63.


Marrow, James H. “Book of Hours in Latin and French: Flanders (Bruges), ca. 1430: Miniatures by the Masters of the Gold Scrolls. NYPL MA 28.” In The Splendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at the New York Public Library. Edited by Jonathan J.G. Alexander, James H. Marrow, and Lucy Freeman Sandler, 283-286. NY: New York Public LibrarySplendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at the New York Public Library, 2005; p. 286 (ref. under cat. no. 63).


Randall, Lilian M.C. “Frontal Heads in the Borders of Parisian and South Netherlandish Books of Hours, ca. 1415-60.” In Tributes in Honor of Jonathan J.G. Alexander: The Making and Meaning of Illuminated Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts, Art, and Architecture. Edited by Susan L’Engle and Gerald B. Gest, 249-268. Turnhout, Belgium: Harvey Miller Publishers, 2006; p. 259, fig. 7.


Reinburg, Virginia. French Books of Hours: Making an Archive of Prayer, C.1400-1600. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012; pp. viii,163 (n. 126), 164 (fig. 24), 174.


Bindings & Oddities

These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

14guardsheetr

24guardsheetr

64guardsheetr

77guardsheetr

84guardsheetr

89guardsheetr

99guardsheetr

108guardsheetr

146guardsheetr

148guardsheetr

150guardsheetv

158guardsheetr

187guardsheetr

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Book of Hours
Christian
Flemish
Miniature
Flanders
15th century
Devotion
Painting
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