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Manuscript Overview
References
Bindings & Oddities

Abstract

This mid-fifteenth-century illuminated Book of Hours is written entirely in Dutch on fine parchment and is remarkable for its eighteen grisaille miniatures. This technique, wherein the figures are modeled primarily in a gray wash, became a favorite in the Netherlands. The hand behind the miniatures in this manuscript has been identified with a group of artists known as the Masters of the Delft Grisailles. The manuscript has been grouped with more than a dozen related works, including New York, Morgan Ms. M.349; London, Victoria and Albert Geo. Reid Ms. 32; Leiden, BPL Ms. 224; Brussels, BR Ms. 21696; Antwerp, Plantin Moretus Ms. 49; and The Hague, KB Ms. 74 G 35. The manuscript is comprised of 152 folios and is almost completely intact, lacking only two miniatures. It retains its original brown leather binding decorated with mythological beasts and a now illegible inscription. The calendar is for the Use of Utrecht, which helps localize its original ownership, as might a mostly erased ownership inscription that has been partially recovered. Good impressions of two circular pilgrim badges, now removed, are visible on fol. 112v.

Hand note

Written in Gothic bookhand; one hand responsible for the majority of text; a different, less professional hand responsible for added prayers in the same script on fols. 114v-115v and 128v-130r

Decoration Note

Full-page grisaille miniatures throughout; baguette along the left side of the text column, with extensions, present on most folios commencing major new texts; ordinary leaves with decorated initials (4 to 5 lines), done in gold on red and blue cusped fields with white tracery and/or blue with white tracery on cusped gold fields, enclosing painted foliage and flowers; ordinary initials with extensions from the initial into the upper or left margin; capitals stroked with red; red rubrics; alternating red and blue initials throughout (1 to 2 lines)

Contributors

artist: Masters of the Delft Grisailles

Principal cataloger: Marrow, James

Cataloger: Devine, Alex

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Dutschke, Consuelo

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Contributor: Valle, Chiara

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

Cockerell, Sydney Carlye. Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts. London: Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908, no. 243, pl. 149.


Byvanck, Alexander Willem, and Godefridus Johannes Hoogewerf. La miniature hollandaise dans les manuscrits des 14e, 15e et 16e siècles. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1922-26, p. 24, no. 45, pl. 13.


Da Costa Greene, Belle, and Meta P. Harrsen. The Pierpont Morgan Library, Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts Held at the New York Public Library. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1934, no. 102.


De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 787, no. 192.


Miner, Dorothy. "Dutch Illuminated Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery." Connoisseur Yearbook (1954-55): 75-76.


Marrow, James. "A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Notes on the Relationship between Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands." Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 609, no. 62, pl. 46 (fol. 23v).


Marrow, James. Passion Iconography in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance: A Study of the Transformation of Sacred Metaphor into Descriptive Narrative. Ars Neerlandica. Vol. 1. Kortrijk, Belgium: Van Ghemmert, 1979, p. 225, no. 8b.


Farquhar, James Douglas. "Manuscript Production and Evidence for Localizing and Dating Fifteenth-Century Books of Hours: Walters Ms. 239." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 45 (1987): 44-102, fig. 56 (fol. 116v).


Marrow, James H., Henri L. M. Defoer, Anne S. Korteweg, and Wilhelmina C.M. Wüstefeld. The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1990, pp. 188-189, no. 52.


These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Christian
Miniature
Dutch
Devotion
Book of Hours
Netherlands
Flemish
Original binding
Binding
Grisaille
15th century
Gradual

Origin Place

Netherlands

Date

Middle of the 15th century CE

Form

book

Binding

Original Binding

Binding Description

Probably fifteenth-century; worn brown calf over boards, panel-stamped in blind; frame of double fillets enclosing two rectangular panel stamps, each 5.0 x 7.1 cm, of two files of three mythological beasts and grotesques, surrounded by an inscription in Gothic script (inscription illegible and beasts not identifiable because of wear to the binding); sewn on four raised bands, rebacked; post-medieval brass catch and clasp; all edges gilt

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Dutch; Flemish.

Provenance

Late fifteenth-century ownership inscription of Margriete Rogm[arie?]: Desen boeck hoert toe (margriete rogm[arie?] wonende te bruessel int spe[..]sen hof); translated: This book belongs to Margriete rogm[arie?] who lives in the spe[..]sen hof in Brussels; inscription partially erased but partly legible under ultraviolet light

Rev. W. J. Loftie

Leon Gruel, no. 1164

Henry Walters, Baltimore, acquired from Gruel prior to 1931

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters bequest

← search Loftie Hours W.165

Origin Place

Netherlands

Date

Middle of the 15th century CE

Form

book

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Dutch; Flemish.

Provenance

Late fifteenth-century ownership inscription of Margriete Rogm[arie?]: Desen boeck hoert toe (margriete rogm[arie?] wonende te bruessel int spe[..]sen hof); translated: This book belongs to Margriete rogm[arie?] who lives in the spe[..]sen hof in Brussels; inscription partially erased but partly legible under ultraviolet light

Rev. W. J. Loftie

Leon Gruel, no. 1164

Henry Walters, Baltimore, acquired from Gruel prior to 1931

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters bequest

Manuscript Overview

Abstract

This mid-fifteenth-century illuminated Book of Hours is written entirely in Dutch on fine parchment and is remarkable for its eighteen grisaille miniatures. This technique, wherein the figures are modeled primarily in a gray wash, became a favorite in the Netherlands. The hand behind the miniatures in this manuscript has been identified with a group of artists known as the Masters of the Delft Grisailles. The manuscript has been grouped with more than a dozen related works, including New York, Morgan Ms. M.349; London, Victoria and Albert Geo. Reid Ms. 32; Leiden, BPL Ms. 224; Brussels, BR Ms. 21696; Antwerp, Plantin Moretus Ms. 49; and The Hague, KB Ms. 74 G 35. The manuscript is comprised of 152 folios and is almost completely intact, lacking only two miniatures. It retains its original brown leather binding decorated with mythological beasts and a now illegible inscription. The calendar is for the Use of Utrecht, which helps localize its original ownership, as might a mostly erased ownership inscription that has been partially recovered. Good impressions of two circular pilgrim badges, now removed, are visible on fol. 112v.

Hand note

Written in Gothic bookhand; one hand responsible for the majority of text; a different, less professional hand responsible for added prayers in the same script on fols. 114v-115v and 128v-130r

Decoration Note

Full-page grisaille miniatures throughout; baguette along the left side of the text column, with extensions, present on most folios commencing major new texts; ordinary leaves with decorated initials (4 to 5 lines), done in gold on red and blue cusped fields with white tracery and/or blue with white tracery on cusped gold fields, enclosing painted foliage and flowers; ordinary initials with extensions from the initial into the upper or left margin; capitals stroked with red; red rubrics; alternating red and blue initials throughout (1 to 2 lines)

References

Contributors

artist: Masters of the Delft Grisailles

Principal cataloger: Marrow, James

Cataloger: Devine, Alex

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Dutschke, Consuelo

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Contributor: Valle, Chiara

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

Cockerell, Sydney Carlye. Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts. London: Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908, no. 243, pl. 149.


Byvanck, Alexander Willem, and Godefridus Johannes Hoogewerf. La miniature hollandaise dans les manuscrits des 14e, 15e et 16e siècles. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1922-26, p. 24, no. 45, pl. 13.


Da Costa Greene, Belle, and Meta P. Harrsen. The Pierpont Morgan Library, Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts Held at the New York Public Library. New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1934, no. 102.


De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 787, no. 192.


Miner, Dorothy. "Dutch Illuminated Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery." Connoisseur Yearbook (1954-55): 75-76.


Marrow, James. "A Book of Hours from the Circle of the Master of the Berlin Passion: Notes on the Relationship between Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination and Printmaking in the Rhenish Lowlands." Art Bulletin 60 (1978): 609, no. 62, pl. 46 (fol. 23v).


Marrow, James. Passion Iconography in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance: A Study of the Transformation of Sacred Metaphor into Descriptive Narrative. Ars Neerlandica. Vol. 1. Kortrijk, Belgium: Van Ghemmert, 1979, p. 225, no. 8b.


Farquhar, James Douglas. "Manuscript Production and Evidence for Localizing and Dating Fifteenth-Century Books of Hours: Walters Ms. 239." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 45 (1987): 44-102, fig. 56 (fol. 116v).


Marrow, James H., Henri L. M. Defoer, Anne S. Korteweg, and Wilhelmina C.M. Wüstefeld. The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1990, pp. 188-189, no. 52.


Bindings & Oddities

These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Christian
Miniature
Dutch
Devotion
Book of Hours
Netherlands
Flemish
Original binding
Binding
Grisaille
15th century
Gradual
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