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Manuscript Overview
References
Bindings & Oddities

Abstract

This fine illuminated Book of Hours was produced in two stages in the second and third quarters of the fifteenth century. The manuscript contains eleven full-page miniatures and twenty historiated initials. The first stage of production includes a section attributed to the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg and the calendar (fols. 3r-14v, 52v-211v), while additional prayers illustrated in the style of the workshop of Willem Vrelant were added later in the fifteenth century (fols. 16r-50v, 213r-223r), presumably when the book was bound in its present binding. The Hours of the Virgin is for the Use of Rome. The Use of the Office of the Dead is unidentified, but the calendar is for the Use of Utrecht. The two separate parts of the manuscript were bound together in Flanders. The sections of W.168 attributed to the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg have been compared to Utrecht, Utrecht University Ms. 1037; Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum James Ms. 141; the second hand in New York, Pierpont Morgan Library Ms. M.87; Stockholm, Royal Library A 226, and Philadelphia, Free Library Lewis Ms. 88.

Hand note

Written in Gothic bookhand by two scribes in separate campaigns, the first responsible for fols. 1r-14v and 52r-212v, the second for fols. 16r-51v and 213r-223r

Contributors

artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg

artist: Style of Willem Vrelant

Principal cataloger: Marrow, James

Cataloger: Devine, Alex

Cataloger: Hedeman, Anne D.

Cataloger: Herbert, Lynley

Cataloger: Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Boot, Christine

Contributor: Dutschke, Consuelo

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Pizzinato, Riccardo

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Contributor: Valle, Chiara

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 794, no. 235.


Byvanck, A. W. "Kroniek der Noord-Nederlandsche Miniaturen, III." Oudheidkundig Jaarboek, 4th series, 10 (1940): 36, figs. 12-14 (fols. 108v, 52v, and 53r).


Byvanck, A. W. De Middeleeuwsche Boekillustratie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden. Antwerp: De Sikkel, 1943, pp. 29-31, figs. 21, 22 (fols. 52v, 53r).


Wadsworth Athenaeum Museum of Art. Life of Christ Exhibition Catalog March-April, 1948. Hartford, CT: Wadsworth Athenaeum, 1948, p. 3, no. 182.


Walters Art Gallery. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949, no. 121, pl. L (fol. 108v).


Panofsky, Erwin. Early Netherlandish Painting, its Origins and Character. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953, p. 102, n. 4; p. 103, n. 4.


Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts Loan Exhibition November 25, 1953-January 9, 1954. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1954, no. 73 (fol. 76v).


Miner, Dorothy. "Dutch Illuminated Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery." Connoisseur Yearbook (1955): 74-5, fig. x (fol. 76v).


Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book. London, 1958, p. 443, pl. VII-31.


Rijksmuseum. Middeleeuwse Kunst der Noordelijke Nederlanden. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1958, no. 156, fig. 81.


Oberlin College. Spring Bulletin 1960, p. 104, no. 22; p. 107 (fol. 76v).


Hoogewerff, G. J. Gelderse miniatuurschildes in de eerste helft van de XVde eeuw. Oud Holland 76 (1961): 47, figs. 37, 38 (fols. 52v, 53r).


Kessler, Herbert L. A Book of Hours from the Atelier of Willem Vrelant. Scriptorium 18 (1964): 98, pl. 16a (fol. 215v).


Delaisse, L. M. J. A Century of Dutch Manuscript Illumination. California Studies in the History of Art 6. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968, pp. 26, 46, n. 84, figs. 36, 37 (fols. 52v, 76v).


Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. New York: George Braziller, 1988, pp. 127, 220-221, fig. 113 (fols. 166v-167r).


Marrow, James H., Henri L. M. Defoer, Anne S. Korteweg, and Wilhelmina C. M. W├╝stefeld. The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1990, pp. 115-116, no. 37.


Fisher, Carol, and Kathleen L. Scott, eds. Art into Life: Collected Papers from the Kresge Art Museum Medieval Symposia. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1995, pp. 168-169 (fols. 166v, 167r).


Binski, Paul. Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation. London: British Museum Press, 1996, pl. 3 (fols. 166v-167r).


Ketelsen, Thomas, and Uta Neidhardt. Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck. Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2005, p. 92, Abb. 2 (fol. 52v).


Gottler, Christine. Last Things: Art and Religious Imagination in the Age of Reform. Proteus 2. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers, 2010.


These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Christian
Miniature
Dutch
Devotion
Book of Hours
Netherlands
Flanders
Original binding
Binding
Historiated initial
Gothic book hand
15th century

Origin Place

Utrecht, with additions probably in Bruges

Date

Second quarter of the 15th century (ca. 1430-35), with additions ca. 1460

Form

book

Binding

Original Binding

Binding Description

Bound in fifteenth-century Flanders (Bruges); black calfskin covering beech boards; blind panel-stamping laid out in two panels on both boards, each panel displaying two vine-scrolls in mirror image of each other containing a bird, a rabbit couchant, a cock, a deer couchant, and a pelican in piety; both panels surrounded by the inscription "Ora pro nobis sancta / Dei genitrix ut / digni efficamur promis / sione Xpristi"; between panels a smaller compartment composed of three stamps displaying a wivern couchant, St. Margaret emerging from the dragon, and a gryphon rampant; all edges gilt; indications of a central fastening, now a pair of late Gothic brass catch-and-strap clasps hinging from lower board

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Provenance

Created in two phases, with the original part made ca. 1430-35 and the second part made in the late fifteenth century; calendar for Utrecht suggests original site of production

Libraire Morgand no. 26084, nineteenth century

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters bequest

← search Book of Hours W.168

Origin Place

Utrecht, with additions probably in Bruges

Date

Second quarter of the 15th century (ca. 1430-35), with additions ca. 1460

Form

book

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Provenance

Created in two phases, with the original part made ca. 1430-35 and the second part made in the late fifteenth century; calendar for Utrecht suggests original site of production

Libraire Morgand no. 26084, nineteenth century

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters bequest

Manuscript Overview

Abstract

This fine illuminated Book of Hours was produced in two stages in the second and third quarters of the fifteenth century. The manuscript contains eleven full-page miniatures and twenty historiated initials. The first stage of production includes a section attributed to the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg and the calendar (fols. 3r-14v, 52v-211v), while additional prayers illustrated in the style of the workshop of Willem Vrelant were added later in the fifteenth century (fols. 16r-50v, 213r-223r), presumably when the book was bound in its present binding. The Hours of the Virgin is for the Use of Rome. The Use of the Office of the Dead is unidentified, but the calendar is for the Use of Utrecht. The two separate parts of the manuscript were bound together in Flanders. The sections of W.168 attributed to the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg have been compared to Utrecht, Utrecht University Ms. 1037; Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum James Ms. 141; the second hand in New York, Pierpont Morgan Library Ms. M.87; Stockholm, Royal Library A 226, and Philadelphia, Free Library Lewis Ms. 88.

Hand note

Written in Gothic bookhand by two scribes in separate campaigns, the first responsible for fols. 1r-14v and 52r-212v, the second for fols. 16r-51v and 213r-223r

References

Contributors

artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg

artist: Style of Willem Vrelant

Principal cataloger: Marrow, James

Cataloger: Devine, Alex

Cataloger: Hedeman, Anne D.

Cataloger: Herbert, Lynley

Cataloger: Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Boot, Christine

Contributor: Dutschke, Consuelo

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Pizzinato, Riccardo

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Contributor: Valle, Chiara

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 794, no. 235.


Byvanck, A. W. "Kroniek der Noord-Nederlandsche Miniaturen, III." Oudheidkundig Jaarboek, 4th series, 10 (1940): 36, figs. 12-14 (fols. 108v, 52v, and 53r).


Byvanck, A. W. De Middeleeuwsche Boekillustratie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden. Antwerp: De Sikkel, 1943, pp. 29-31, figs. 21, 22 (fols. 52v, 53r).


Wadsworth Athenaeum Museum of Art. Life of Christ Exhibition Catalog March-April, 1948. Hartford, CT: Wadsworth Athenaeum, 1948, p. 3, no. 182.


Walters Art Gallery. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949, no. 121, pl. L (fol. 108v).


Panofsky, Erwin. Early Netherlandish Painting, its Origins and Character. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953, p. 102, n. 4; p. 103, n. 4.


Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts Loan Exhibition November 25, 1953-January 9, 1954. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1954, no. 73 (fol. 76v).


Miner, Dorothy. "Dutch Illuminated Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery." Connoisseur Yearbook (1955): 74-5, fig. x (fol. 76v).


Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book. London, 1958, p. 443, pl. VII-31.


Rijksmuseum. Middeleeuwse Kunst der Noordelijke Nederlanden. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1958, no. 156, fig. 81.


Oberlin College. Spring Bulletin 1960, p. 104, no. 22; p. 107 (fol. 76v).


Hoogewerff, G. J. Gelderse miniatuurschildes in de eerste helft van de XVde eeuw. Oud Holland 76 (1961): 47, figs. 37, 38 (fols. 52v, 53r).


Kessler, Herbert L. A Book of Hours from the Atelier of Willem Vrelant. Scriptorium 18 (1964): 98, pl. 16a (fol. 215v).


Delaisse, L. M. J. A Century of Dutch Manuscript Illumination. California Studies in the History of Art 6. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968, pp. 26, 46, n. 84, figs. 36, 37 (fols. 52v, 76v).


Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. New York: George Braziller, 1988, pp. 127, 220-221, fig. 113 (fols. 166v-167r).


Marrow, James H., Henri L. M. Defoer, Anne S. Korteweg, and Wilhelmina C. M. W├╝stefeld. The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1990, pp. 115-116, no. 37.


Fisher, Carol, and Kathleen L. Scott, eds. Art into Life: Collected Papers from the Kresge Art Museum Medieval Symposia. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1995, pp. 168-169 (fols. 166v, 167r).


Binski, Paul. Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation. London: British Museum Press, 1996, pl. 3 (fols. 166v-167r).


Ketelsen, Thomas, and Uta Neidhardt. Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck. Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2005, p. 92, Abb. 2 (fol. 52v).


Gottler, Christine. Last Things: Art and Religious Imagination in the Age of Reform. Proteus 2. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers, 2010.


Bindings & Oddities

These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Christian
Miniature
Dutch
Devotion
Book of Hours
Netherlands
Flanders
Original binding
Binding
Historiated initial
Gothic book hand
15th century
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