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Manuscript Overview
References
Bindings & Oddities

Abstract

This large-format copy of the New Testament was almost certainly created at Rochester Cathedral Priory, England, in the first half of the twelfth century. It was part of a five-volume Bible, only one other volume of which, London, British Library Ms. Royal I.C.VII, has survived. The decorated initials in these manuscripts compare closely with those in other books securely attributed to Rochester. Textually these books are closely related to the Gundulph Bible (San Marino, Huntington Library Ms. HM 62), known to have been produced at Rochester in the second half of the eleventh century. Although neither the Walters' nor the British Library's volume includes an inscription associating this Bible with Rochester, the two medieval catalogs of the Rochester Cathedral library, produced around 1130 and in 1202, contain references to manuscripts that correspond well with them. The book’s large size indicates it that was designed to be read aloud, either during services or at meals in the refectory. Large, fanciful initials filled with succulent foliage, fruit, dragons, animals, and human faces begin each section of the text. Executed in a vibrant palette of red, blue, green, ochre (in place of gold), and yellow, the intricate, dynamic designs capture the essence of Romanesque manuscript illumination. Royal I.C.VII also includes four historiated initials (for the books of Joshua, I Samuel, 2 Samuel, and 2 Kings). Although the Bible was made at Rochester, the pre-Gothic script of W.18 in particular is extremely close to that practiced at nearby Canterbury at the time.

Text Note

Incomplete: Fols. 1r-28v: Gospel of Matthew [Missing 3:2-7:24]; fols. 29r-47v: Gospel of Mark to Chapter 16:8 (dixerunt time...); [missing Mark 16:8-Luke 1:15; fols. 48r-80v: Gospel of Luke from 1:15 (enim magnus coram domino); fols. 81r-105v: Gospel of John; fol. 106r: Incipit argumentum Actuum Apostolorum (Actus Apostolorum nudam [Stegmüller 631]), Incipit praefatio sancti Ieronimi presbiteri in Actus Apostolorum (Lucas natione syrus [Stegmüller 640]); fols. 106v-107v: Capitula (Ubi praecepit dominus); fols. 107v-141r: Acts of the Apostles; fols. 141r-v: Incipit prologus Epistolarum Apostolorum (Non ita est ordo [Stegmüller 809]); fols. 141v-142r: Incipiunt capitula in Epistola beati Iacobi Apostoli (De inimicorum); fol. 142r: Incipit argumentum (Iacobus Apostolus [Stegmüller 806]); fols.142r-145v: James; fol. 145v: Incipiunt capitula in Epistola prima beati Petri Apostoli (De regenerationis), Incipit argumentum (Discipulos salvatoris invictos [Stegmüller 812]); fols. 146r-107v: I Peter; fol. 149v: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae secundae eiusdem (De sanctis quos), Incipit argumentum (Per fidem huic mundo [Stegmüller 817]); fols. 149v-152r: II Peter; fol. 152r: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae beati Johannis Apostoli primae (De verbo vitae); fols. 152r-155v: I John; fol. 155v: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae secundae eiusdem (De diligendis), Incipit argumentum (Usque adeo [Stegmüller 823]); fols. 155v-156r: II John; fol. 156r: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae tertiae (De filiis Apostoli); fols. 156r-v: Incipit argumentum (Gaium pietatis causa [Stegmüller 824]); fols. 156v-157r: III John; fol. 157r: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae beati Judae Apostoli (De falsis doctoribus); fols. 157r-158r: Jude; fols. 158r-v: Incipit argumentum Epistolarum Pauli Apostoli (Epistolae Pauli ad Romanos causa [Stegmüller 651]); fols. 158v-160r: Incipit praefatio epistolarum pauli apostoli (Primun quaeritur [Stegmüller 670]); fols. 160r-161r: Item argumentum (Romani qui ex iudeis [Stegmüller 674]); fol. 161r: Argumentum (Romani sunt in partibus italiae ... Iam dudum saulus [Stegmüller 677, 654]); fols. 161r-v: Incipiunt capitula (De nativitate christi secundum carnem); fols. 161v-174r: Romans; fols. 174r-175r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Corinthios (Chorinthii sunt [Stegmüller 684]), Item argumentum (Chorinthus metropolis civitas [Stegmüller 689]); fol. 175r: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae ad Corinthios (Obsecro itaque); fols. 175r-186v: I Corinthians to 16.10 (si autem venerit timothe...); [missing Corinthians 16.10 - II Corintihians 1:9]; fols. 187r-194v: II Corinthians, from 1:9 (qui suscitat mortuos); fol. 194v: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Galathas (Galathae sunt Greci [Stegmüller 707]), Incipiunt capitula (Miror quod sic); fols. 195r-198v: Galatians; fol. 199r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Ephesios (Ephisii sunt [Stegmüller 715]), Incipiunt capitula (Benedictus deus); fols. 199r-203r: Ephesians; fol. 203r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Phylippenses (Phylippenses sunt Macedones [Stegmüller 728]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias ago); fols. 203r-206r: Philippians; fol. 206r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Colosenses (Colosenses et hi sicut [Stegmüller 736]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias agimus deo); fols. 206v-209r: Colossians; fol. 209r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Thessalonicenses (Thessalonicenses sunt Macedones [Stegmüller 747]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias agimus deo); fols. 209r-211v: I Thessalonians; fol. 211v: Incipit argumentum Epistolae secundae ad Eosdem (Ad Thassalonicenses secundum scribit [Stegmüller 752]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias agere); fols. 212r-213r: II Thessalonians; fol. 213r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Timotheum (Timotheum instruit [Stegmüller 765]), Incipiunt capitula (Sicut rogavi); fols. 213r-216v: I Timothy; fol. 216v: Incipit argumentum Epistolae secundae ad Eundem (Item Timotheo [Stegmüller 772]), Incipiunt capitula (Noli itaque); fols. 216v-218v: II Timothy; fols. 218v-219r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Titum (Titum commone fecit [Stegmüller 780]); fol. 219r: Incipiunt capitula (Huius rei gratia); fols. 219r-220r: Titus; fol. 220r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Phylemonem (Phylemoni familiares [Stegmüller 783]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias ago deo); fols. 220v-221r: Philemon; fol. 221r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Hebreos (In primis dicendum est [Stegmüller 794]), Incipiunt capitula (Multifariae multisque); fols. 221v-230v: Hebrews; fols. 230v-231r: Incipiunt capitula in Epistola ad Laodicenses; fols. 231r-v: (Paulus Apostolus pro Laodicensibus), Laodicensians; fols. 231v-232r: Incipit prologus beati Ieronimi presbiteri in Apocalypsi (Johannes Apostolus et Evangelista [Stegmüller 835]); fol. 232r: Incipiunt capitula (Johannes septem ecclesiis); fols. 232v-248r: Apocalypse

Hand note

Written in pre-Gothic bookhand, with a smaller version used for chapter lists; opening words of each book in majuscule display script; scribe writing in a script particularly associated with Christ Church Canterbury and houses under its influence in the early twelfth century; suggested by Richards that this volume was written by a Christ Church Canterbury scribe

Decoration Note

Twenty-six large, ornate initials (Luke's is missing, as is that for II Corinthians), decorated with heavy foliate designs inhabited by fanciful creatures and human faces (4 to 30 lines high); smaller undecorated initials throughout (1 to 8 lines high); incipits in square capitals written in alternating lines of blue, green, red, and yellow; text in black ink. The initials in W.18 compare closely with the initials in two manuscripts of certain Rochester provenance. One of these, London, British Library Ms. Royal 5.D.III, containing the first volume of Augustine’s Enarationes in Psalmos, includes inhabited initials similar to those in W.18. The historiated initial showing a seated St. Ambrose in the second manuscript, London, British Library Ms. Royal 6.B.VI--a volume containing Ambrose’s De mysteriis and De sacramentis, Ivo of Chartres’s sermones and Epistolae, and Bruno of Asti’s De sacramentis ecclesiae--compares with the historiated initials in W.18's sister volume, London, British Library Ms. Royal I.C.VII. The script and decoration of W.18 and Royal 1.C.VII are related to styles of script and decoration developed at Canterbury.

Contributors

Principal cataloger: Herbert, Lynley

Principal cataloger: Noel, William

Principal cataloger: Smith, Kathryn

Cataloger: Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Dutschke, Consuelo

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Grollemond, Larisa

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 766, no. 57.


Walters Art Gallery. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949, no. 19, pl. XIII.


Dodwell, C. R. The Canterbury School of Illumination, 1066-1200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954, pp. 65, 74, 119, fig. 37g (fol. 146).


Boase, T. S. R. English Art 1100-1216. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959, pp. 63-65, 160, fig. 19b.


Walters Art Gallery. 2,000 Years of Calligraphy. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1965, no. 22.


Berkowitz, David S. In Remembrance of Creation: Evolution of Art and Scholarship in the Medieval and Renaissance Bible. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 1968, no. 65.


Alexander, J. J. G., and C. M. Kauffmann. English Illuminated Manuscripts 700-1500. Brussels: Bibliotheque Royale Albert, 1973, pp. 52-53, no. 26, pl. II.


Kauffmann, C. M. Romanesque Manuscripts 1066-1190. Vol. 3. London: Harvey Miller, 1975, no. 45, figs. 123-126.


Richards, Mary P. "A Decorated Vulgate Set from a 12th Century Illuminated Manuscript on Vellum." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 39 (1981): 59-67, figs. 1, 2, 6.


Quandt, Abigail B. 1986. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, preprint of a paper presented at the fourteenth annual meeting, Chicago, May 21-25, 1986 (The Conservation of a Twelfth Century Illuminated Manuscript on Vellum) 97-113.


Burin, Elizabeth. "Mixing Styles on the Pilgrimage Roads: A Romanesque Manuscript in the Walters Art Gallery." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 54 (1996): 9-20, fig. 16 (fol. 1r).


Noel, William, and Daniel Weiss. The Book of Kings: Art, War, and the Morgan Library's Medieval Picture Bible. London: Third Millennium Publishing; Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2002, p. 150, no. 1 (fol. 161v).


These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Christian
Scripture
England
Romanesque
Bible
English
Inhabited initial
12th century

Origin Place

Rochester, England

Date

Ca. 1130 CE

Form

book

Binding

Non-original Binding

Binding Description

New binding made of alum-processed pigskin and quarter-sawn oak boards by Abigail Quandt, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, 1986; previous binding probably by Leon Gruel, early 20th century, constructed of five recessed cords laced into heavy millboards covered in red silk; manuscript rebound two or three times since the twelfth century

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Provenance

Priory scriptorium of Rochester Cathedral, England, twelfth century

Leon Gruel collection, no. 1138, Paris, before 1931

Henry Walters, Baltimore, acquired from Gruel, before 1931

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters bequest

← search Rochester New Testament W.18

Origin Place

Rochester, England

Date

Ca. 1130 CE

Form

book

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Provenance

Priory scriptorium of Rochester Cathedral, England, twelfth century

Leon Gruel collection, no. 1138, Paris, before 1931

Henry Walters, Baltimore, acquired from Gruel, before 1931

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters bequest

Manuscript Overview

Abstract

This large-format copy of the New Testament was almost certainly created at Rochester Cathedral Priory, England, in the first half of the twelfth century. It was part of a five-volume Bible, only one other volume of which, London, British Library Ms. Royal I.C.VII, has survived. The decorated initials in these manuscripts compare closely with those in other books securely attributed to Rochester. Textually these books are closely related to the Gundulph Bible (San Marino, Huntington Library Ms. HM 62), known to have been produced at Rochester in the second half of the eleventh century. Although neither the Walters' nor the British Library's volume includes an inscription associating this Bible with Rochester, the two medieval catalogs of the Rochester Cathedral library, produced around 1130 and in 1202, contain references to manuscripts that correspond well with them. The book’s large size indicates it that was designed to be read aloud, either during services or at meals in the refectory. Large, fanciful initials filled with succulent foliage, fruit, dragons, animals, and human faces begin each section of the text. Executed in a vibrant palette of red, blue, green, ochre (in place of gold), and yellow, the intricate, dynamic designs capture the essence of Romanesque manuscript illumination. Royal I.C.VII also includes four historiated initials (for the books of Joshua, I Samuel, 2 Samuel, and 2 Kings). Although the Bible was made at Rochester, the pre-Gothic script of W.18 in particular is extremely close to that practiced at nearby Canterbury at the time.

Text Note

Incomplete: Fols. 1r-28v: Gospel of Matthew [Missing 3:2-7:24]; fols. 29r-47v: Gospel of Mark to Chapter 16:8 (dixerunt time...); [missing Mark 16:8-Luke 1:15; fols. 48r-80v: Gospel of Luke from 1:15 (enim magnus coram domino); fols. 81r-105v: Gospel of John; fol. 106r: Incipit argumentum Actuum Apostolorum (Actus Apostolorum nudam [Stegmüller 631]), Incipit praefatio sancti Ieronimi presbiteri in Actus Apostolorum (Lucas natione syrus [Stegmüller 640]); fols. 106v-107v: Capitula (Ubi praecepit dominus); fols. 107v-141r: Acts of the Apostles; fols. 141r-v: Incipit prologus Epistolarum Apostolorum (Non ita est ordo [Stegmüller 809]); fols. 141v-142r: Incipiunt capitula in Epistola beati Iacobi Apostoli (De inimicorum); fol. 142r: Incipit argumentum (Iacobus Apostolus [Stegmüller 806]); fols.142r-145v: James; fol. 145v: Incipiunt capitula in Epistola prima beati Petri Apostoli (De regenerationis), Incipit argumentum (Discipulos salvatoris invictos [Stegmüller 812]); fols. 146r-107v: I Peter; fol. 149v: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae secundae eiusdem (De sanctis quos), Incipit argumentum (Per fidem huic mundo [Stegmüller 817]); fols. 149v-152r: II Peter; fol. 152r: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae beati Johannis Apostoli primae (De verbo vitae); fols. 152r-155v: I John; fol. 155v: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae secundae eiusdem (De diligendis), Incipit argumentum (Usque adeo [Stegmüller 823]); fols. 155v-156r: II John; fol. 156r: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae tertiae (De filiis Apostoli); fols. 156r-v: Incipit argumentum (Gaium pietatis causa [Stegmüller 824]); fols. 156v-157r: III John; fol. 157r: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae beati Judae Apostoli (De falsis doctoribus); fols. 157r-158r: Jude; fols. 158r-v: Incipit argumentum Epistolarum Pauli Apostoli (Epistolae Pauli ad Romanos causa [Stegmüller 651]); fols. 158v-160r: Incipit praefatio epistolarum pauli apostoli (Primun quaeritur [Stegmüller 670]); fols. 160r-161r: Item argumentum (Romani qui ex iudeis [Stegmüller 674]); fol. 161r: Argumentum (Romani sunt in partibus italiae ... Iam dudum saulus [Stegmüller 677, 654]); fols. 161r-v: Incipiunt capitula (De nativitate christi secundum carnem); fols. 161v-174r: Romans; fols. 174r-175r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Corinthios (Chorinthii sunt [Stegmüller 684]), Item argumentum (Chorinthus metropolis civitas [Stegmüller 689]); fol. 175r: Incipiunt capitula Epistolae ad Corinthios (Obsecro itaque); fols. 175r-186v: I Corinthians to 16.10 (si autem venerit timothe...); [missing Corinthians 16.10 - II Corintihians 1:9]; fols. 187r-194v: II Corinthians, from 1:9 (qui suscitat mortuos); fol. 194v: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Galathas (Galathae sunt Greci [Stegmüller 707]), Incipiunt capitula (Miror quod sic); fols. 195r-198v: Galatians; fol. 199r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Ephesios (Ephisii sunt [Stegmüller 715]), Incipiunt capitula (Benedictus deus); fols. 199r-203r: Ephesians; fol. 203r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Phylippenses (Phylippenses sunt Macedones [Stegmüller 728]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias ago); fols. 203r-206r: Philippians; fol. 206r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Colosenses (Colosenses et hi sicut [Stegmüller 736]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias agimus deo); fols. 206v-209r: Colossians; fol. 209r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Thessalonicenses (Thessalonicenses sunt Macedones [Stegmüller 747]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias agimus deo); fols. 209r-211v: I Thessalonians; fol. 211v: Incipit argumentum Epistolae secundae ad Eosdem (Ad Thassalonicenses secundum scribit [Stegmüller 752]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias agere); fols. 212r-213r: II Thessalonians; fol. 213r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Timotheum (Timotheum instruit [Stegmüller 765]), Incipiunt capitula (Sicut rogavi); fols. 213r-216v: I Timothy; fol. 216v: Incipit argumentum Epistolae secundae ad Eundem (Item Timotheo [Stegmüller 772]), Incipiunt capitula (Noli itaque); fols. 216v-218v: II Timothy; fols. 218v-219r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Titum (Titum commone fecit [Stegmüller 780]); fol. 219r: Incipiunt capitula (Huius rei gratia); fols. 219r-220r: Titus; fol. 220r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Phylemonem (Phylemoni familiares [Stegmüller 783]), Incipiunt capitula (Gratias ago deo); fols. 220v-221r: Philemon; fol. 221r: Incipit argumentum Epistolae ad Hebreos (In primis dicendum est [Stegmüller 794]), Incipiunt capitula (Multifariae multisque); fols. 221v-230v: Hebrews; fols. 230v-231r: Incipiunt capitula in Epistola ad Laodicenses; fols. 231r-v: (Paulus Apostolus pro Laodicensibus), Laodicensians; fols. 231v-232r: Incipit prologus beati Ieronimi presbiteri in Apocalypsi (Johannes Apostolus et Evangelista [Stegmüller 835]); fol. 232r: Incipiunt capitula (Johannes septem ecclesiis); fols. 232v-248r: Apocalypse

Hand note

Written in pre-Gothic bookhand, with a smaller version used for chapter lists; opening words of each book in majuscule display script; scribe writing in a script particularly associated with Christ Church Canterbury and houses under its influence in the early twelfth century; suggested by Richards that this volume was written by a Christ Church Canterbury scribe

Decoration Note

Twenty-six large, ornate initials (Luke's is missing, as is that for II Corinthians), decorated with heavy foliate designs inhabited by fanciful creatures and human faces (4 to 30 lines high); smaller undecorated initials throughout (1 to 8 lines high); incipits in square capitals written in alternating lines of blue, green, red, and yellow; text in black ink. The initials in W.18 compare closely with the initials in two manuscripts of certain Rochester provenance. One of these, London, British Library Ms. Royal 5.D.III, containing the first volume of Augustine’s Enarationes in Psalmos, includes inhabited initials similar to those in W.18. The historiated initial showing a seated St. Ambrose in the second manuscript, London, British Library Ms. Royal 6.B.VI--a volume containing Ambrose’s De mysteriis and De sacramentis, Ivo of Chartres’s sermones and Epistolae, and Bruno of Asti’s De sacramentis ecclesiae--compares with the historiated initials in W.18's sister volume, London, British Library Ms. Royal I.C.VII. The script and decoration of W.18 and Royal 1.C.VII are related to styles of script and decoration developed at Canterbury.

References

Contributors

Principal cataloger: Herbert, Lynley

Principal cataloger: Noel, William

Principal cataloger: Smith, Kathryn

Cataloger: Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Dutschke, Consuelo

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Grollemond, Larisa

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 766, no. 57.


Walters Art Gallery. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949, no. 19, pl. XIII.


Dodwell, C. R. The Canterbury School of Illumination, 1066-1200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954, pp. 65, 74, 119, fig. 37g (fol. 146).


Boase, T. S. R. English Art 1100-1216. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959, pp. 63-65, 160, fig. 19b.


Walters Art Gallery. 2,000 Years of Calligraphy. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1965, no. 22.


Berkowitz, David S. In Remembrance of Creation: Evolution of Art and Scholarship in the Medieval and Renaissance Bible. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 1968, no. 65.


Alexander, J. J. G., and C. M. Kauffmann. English Illuminated Manuscripts 700-1500. Brussels: Bibliotheque Royale Albert, 1973, pp. 52-53, no. 26, pl. II.


Kauffmann, C. M. Romanesque Manuscripts 1066-1190. Vol. 3. London: Harvey Miller, 1975, no. 45, figs. 123-126.


Richards, Mary P. "A Decorated Vulgate Set from a 12th Century Illuminated Manuscript on Vellum." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 39 (1981): 59-67, figs. 1, 2, 6.


Quandt, Abigail B. 1986. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, preprint of a paper presented at the fourteenth annual meeting, Chicago, May 21-25, 1986 (The Conservation of a Twelfth Century Illuminated Manuscript on Vellum) 97-113.


Burin, Elizabeth. "Mixing Styles on the Pilgrimage Roads: A Romanesque Manuscript in the Walters Art Gallery." Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 54 (1996): 9-20, fig. 16 (fol. 1r).


Noel, William, and Daniel Weiss. The Book of Kings: Art, War, and the Morgan Library's Medieval Picture Bible. London: Third Millennium Publishing; Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2002, p. 150, no. 1 (fol. 161v).


Bindings & Oddities

These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Christian
Scripture
England
Romanesque
Bible
English
Inhabited initial
12th century
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