Internet Archive BookReader Demo
← search Doffinnes Hours W.185
Manuscript Overview
Bindings & Oddities


This Book of Hours was named the Doffinnes Hours after Franchoise de Doffinnes, who owned the book in the late sixteenth century and whose family’s subsequent history remains chronicled on the book’s final folios. However, the manuscript was originally made in the first quarter of the fifteenth century, probably for a married couple, who were originally represented kneeling with scrolls and their coats of arms in the margins, flanking a full-page miniature of the Crucifixion (fol. 72v), but whose figures and arms were later erased and overpainted with white. The manuscript contains both Latin and Dutch texts, supplemented by twelve full-page miniatures, the work of the Master of Walters 185. The manuscript also contains twelve pen-and-ink decorated initials in the calendar, some with grotesque faces, and letter "G" descenders throughout the book that can be attributed to the scribe Johannes de Malborch. The book’s original Dutch provenance is indicated by its calendar (for the Use of Utrecht) and its Hours of the Virgin, which follows predominantly the Use of the Windesheim Congregation. Prayers in Dutch were added to the end of the volume in the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century, and the book was subsequently rebound with its current cream-colored parchment binding of the seventeenth or eighteenth century.

Hand note

Written in a late humanistic script


artist: Master of Walters 185

Principal cataloger: Marrow, James

Cataloger: Devine, Alex

Cataloger: Dutschke, Consuelo

Cataloger: Herbert, Lynley

Cataloger: Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Noel, William

Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Bockrath, Diane

Contributor: Boot, Christine

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Noel, William

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail


De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 787, no. 191.

Byvanck, A. W. "Kroniek der Noord-Nederlandsche miniaturen, III." Oudheidkundig Jaarboek, 4th series, 9 (1940): 29-41.

Sterling, Charles [Charles Jacques, pseud.]. La peinture française: les peintres du moyen âge. Paris: P. Tisné, 1941, p. 78, no. 10.

Walters Art Gallery. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949, no. 120.

Panofsky, Erwin. "Guelders and Utrecht: A Footnote on a Recent Acquisition of the Nationalmuseum at Stockholm." Konsthistorisk Tidskrift 22 (1953): 90-102, no. 12.

Miner, Dorothy. Dutch Illuminated Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery. Connoisseur Yearbook (1955): 66-77.

Walters Art Gallery. The International Style: The Arts in Europe around 1400. Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery, 1962, pp. 71-72.

Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book: Its History and Production. 2nd ed. New York: Praeger, 1967, p. 446.

Meiss, Millard. French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry: The Late Fourteenth Century and the Patronage of the Duke. New York: Phaidon, 1967, p. 391, no. 107.

Delaissé, L. M. J. A Century of Dutch Manuscript Illumination. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968, p. 20.

Gorissen, Friedrich. "Das Stundenbuch im rheinischen Niederland." Studien zur klevischen Musik- und Liturgiegeschichte (Beiträge zur rheinischen Musikgeschichte 75). Cologne: Volk, 1968, pp. 63-109.

Gorissen, Friedrich. Das Stundenbuch der Katharina von Kleve. Berlin: G. Mann, 1973.

Jenni, Ulrike. Das Skizzenbuch der Internationalen Gotik in den Uffizien. Vienna: Holzhausen, 1976, p. 41, no. 193.

Boot, C. "Medieval Netherlandic Manuscripts in Libraries in the State of Maryland." Archief- en bibliotheekwezen in België 56 (1985): 257-294.

Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. New York: George Braziller, 1988, p. 86, 220, pl. 26 (fols. 49v, 58v).

Marrow, James H. "Johannes de Malborch: Dutch Scribe of the Early 15th Century." Miscellanea Martin Wittek: Album de codicologie et de paleographie offert a Martin Wittek. Anny Raman and Eugene Manning, eds. Louvain-Paris: Editions Peeters, 1993, pp. 265-73, figs. 10-11 (fols. 6r, 43r).

Marrow, James H. As Horas De Margarida De Cleves. Lisboa: Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, 1995, pp. 76-78, 162, no. 34, 39, 43.

These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Lower board outside





Book of Hours
Historiated initial
15th century

Origin Place



First quarter of the 15th century CE




Non-original Binding

Binding Description

Seventeenth- or eighteenth-century cream-colored parchment over pasteboards; parchment pastedowns; spine and boards bearing a gold floral stamp; all edges gilt (front cover repaired or reattached with modern cloth)


The primary language in this manuscript is Latin. The secondary language of