THE DIGITAL WALTERSMENU
Internet Archive BookReader Demo
triangle
← search Collection of works by Augustine W.2
Manuscript Overview
References
Bindings & Oddities

Abstract

This Carolingian manuscript, probably written in northeastern France in the late ninth century, may have important royal affiliations. A distych, or a two-line verse, found on fol. 60v refers to "REX SAPIENS," and has been seen as evidence that this manuscript is a copy of one made for Charles the Bald. In addition to this remarkable pedigree, the manuscript is also noteworthy for its inclusion of several rare texts, including works by St. Augustine of Hippo, the Coptic theologian Didymus the Blind, and Quodvultdeus, a fifth-century bishop of Carthage. The single illumination in the manuscript, an elaborate title page, is a modern addition.

Text Note

An assortment of works primarily by St. Augustine, with additional works by Didymus the Blind, Quodvultdeus, and several anonymous authors

Hand note

Caroline minuscule, with titles, incipits, and explicits in rustic capitals

Decoration Note

Undecorated; illuminated title page is a nineteenth-century invention; a few titles lightly washed with yellow; text entirely in brown ink of varying shades

Contributors

Principal cataloger: Randall, Lilian M.C.

Cataloger: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Copy editor: Dibble, Charles

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Herbert, Lynley

Contributor: Schuele, Allyson

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Contributor: Wiegand, Kimber

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

Miner, Dorothy. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Exhibition Catalogue. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949; cat. no.7, pl. 4.


Faye, Christopher Urdhal, and William Henry Bond. Supplement to the Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1962, p. 195, cat. no. 60.


De Ricci, S., and W.J. Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 818, cat no. 374.


Miner, Dorothy. "The Development of Medieval Illumination as Related to the Evolution of Book Design." Catholic Life Annual 1 (1958): 7-23, 95; p. 11 (fig. 3).


Swarzenski. "The Anhalt Morgan Gospels." Art Bulletin 31 (1949): 77-83; p. 79 (n. 25).


Baltimore Museum of Art. The Greek Tradition in Painting and the Minor Arts: An exhibition sponsored jointly by the Baltimore Museum of Art and the Walters Art Gallery from May 15 through June 25, 1939. Baltimore Museum of Art, 1939; p. 75, cat. no. 89.


Miner Dorothy, V.I. Carlson, and P. W. Filby. 2,000 Years of Calligraphy: A Three-Part Exhibition Organized by the Baltimore Museum of Art, Peabody Institute Library, and the Walters Art Gallery, 6 June-18 July 1965. Exhibition Catalogue. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1965; cat. no. 14, fig. 14.


Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book: Its History and Production. London: Faber and Faber, 1967; p. 166 (pl. III-22a).


Berkowitz, D.S., editor and organizer. In Remembrance of Creation: Evolution of Art and Scholarship in the Medieval and Renaissance Bible. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University, 1968; cat. no. 6, illus. of ff. 15, 62, 123.


Nordenfalk Carl. "A Tenth-Century Gospel Book in the Walters Art Gallery." In Gatherings in Honor of Dorothy E. Miner. Edited by Ursula E. McCracken, Lilian M. C. Randall, and Richard H. Randall Jr. Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery, 1973; pp. 139-170, figs. 1-12, 14-19.


Nordenfalk, Carl. Review of An Early Breton Gospel Book from the Collection of H.L. Bradfer-Lawrence (1887-1965) by F. Wormald and Jonathan J. G. Alexander. Burlington Magazine 120 (1978): 243-244; p. 244.


Cahn, W. "Three Eleventh-Century Manuscripts from Nevers." In Etudes d'art médievale offertes à Louis Grodecki. Paris, 1981; p. 71 (n. 51).


McKitterick, Rosamond. “Charles the Bald (823-877) and His Library: The Patronage of Learning.” English Historical Review 95, no. 374 (January 1980): 28-47.


Mütherich, F. "Ausstattung und Schmuck der Handschrift." In Das Evangeliar Otto III: Clm 4453 der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München, vol. 1. Edited by Fridolin Dressler et al. Frankfurt a. M., 1978; pp. 70, 124.


Jeauneau, Edouard. “Un ‘dossier’ carolingien sur la création de l’homme: Genèse I, 26-III, 24.” Revue des Études Augustiniennes 28 (1982): 112-132.


Randall, Lilian M.C. Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. 1. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989, pp. 3-4, cat. no. 1, fig. 1 (fol. 60v).


Staubach, Nikolaus. Rex Christianus, vol. 1. Weimar and Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 1993; p. 22.


Machielsen, John J. Clavis patristica pseudepigraphorum Medii Aevi: (Praefatio) Theologica exegetica, Vol II. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1994; pp. 11, 19.


McKitterick, Rosamond. The Frankish Kings and Culture in the Early Middle Ages. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Variorum, 1995; p. 104.


Bischoff, Bernhard. Katalog der festländischen Handschriften des neunten Jahrhunderts: Aachen-Lambach. Weisbaden: Otto Harrasowitz, 1998; p. 43, cat. no. 185.


Dutton, Paul Edward, and Herbert Kessler. The Poetry and Paintings of the First Bible of Charles the Bald. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1997; p. 127.


Steinhauser, Kenneth B. "Manuscripts: Florilegia and Epitomes." In Augustine through the Ages: An Encyclopedia. Edited by Allan Fitzgerald. Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1999; p. 526, cat. no. 3.


Gorman, Michael M. "Bernhard Bischoff's Handlist of Carolingian Manuscripts." Scrittura e Civiltà 25 (2001): 89-112; p. 98.


Gorman, Michael M. "The Manuscript Tradition of Augustine's De Genesi contra Manichaeos." Revue des études augustiniennes 47/2 (2001): 303-311; p. 306.


Diem, Albrecht. "Augustine, De opere monachorum." Monastic Manuscript Project. Lasted update January 1, 2013.


These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Upper board inside bookplate up

9v with pastedown stub

10r with pastedown stub

103v with pastedown stub

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Treatise
Carolingian
French
Caroline minuscule
France
9th century
Devotion
Theology
Flemish
Flanders

Origin Place

Northeastern France (possibly Reims or Champagne?)

Date

Second half of the 9th century CE

Form

book

Binding

Non-original Binding

Binding Description

Late nineteenth- or early twentieth-century red velvet binding by León Gruel, Paris; cover was embellished by Gruel with an eighteenth-century silver and gilt plaque of Christ, originally from a Serbian flabellum, and which contains a Slavonic inscription; front and back pastedowns taken from an early eleventh-century Central Italian Sacramentary; a description of an earlier cover was recorded in the library catalog of the monastery of Saint-André Villeneuve-lès-Avignon in 1640 by Dom Odon de la Mothe, who described it as "postibus copertum et basana alba a parte putrida"

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Provenance

Created in northeastern France, probably in the region of Reims or Champagne

Owned by the monastery of Saint-André Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, France, by the seventeenth century; early ownership inscription, fol. 2r, reads "Iste liber est monasterii sancti Andree dyocesis auinionensis .aab."; slightly later inscription

Bénigne-Charles Févret de Saint-Mémin of Dijon, eighteenth century; his bookplate

León Gruel, Paris, late nineteenth or early twentieth century

Henry Walters, Baltimore, purchased from Gruel before 1931

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest

← search Collection of works by Augustine W.2

Origin Place

Northeastern France (possibly Reims or Champagne?)

Date

Second half of the 9th century CE

Form

book

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Provenance

Created in northeastern France, probably in the region of Reims or Champagne

Owned by the monastery of Saint-André Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, France, by the seventeenth century; early ownership inscription, fol. 2r, reads "Iste liber est monasterii sancti Andree dyocesis auinionensis .aab."; slightly later inscription

Bénigne-Charles Févret de Saint-Mémin of Dijon, eighteenth century; his bookplate

León Gruel, Paris, late nineteenth or early twentieth century

Henry Walters, Baltimore, purchased from Gruel before 1931

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest

Manuscript Overview

Abstract

This Carolingian manuscript, probably written in northeastern France in the late ninth century, may have important royal affiliations. A distych, or a two-line verse, found on fol. 60v refers to "REX SAPIENS," and has been seen as evidence that this manuscript is a copy of one made for Charles the Bald. In addition to this remarkable pedigree, the manuscript is also noteworthy for its inclusion of several rare texts, including works by St. Augustine of Hippo, the Coptic theologian Didymus the Blind, and Quodvultdeus, a fifth-century bishop of Carthage. The single illumination in the manuscript, an elaborate title page, is a modern addition.

Text Note

An assortment of works primarily by St. Augustine, with additional works by Didymus the Blind, Quodvultdeus, and several anonymous authors

Hand note

Caroline minuscule, with titles, incipits, and explicits in rustic capitals

Decoration Note

Undecorated; illuminated title page is a nineteenth-century invention; a few titles lightly washed with yellow; text entirely in brown ink of varying shades

References

Contributors

Principal cataloger: Randall, Lilian M.C.

Cataloger: Herbert, Lynley

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Copy editor: Dibble, Charles

Contributor: Emery, Doug

Contributor: Herbert, Lynley

Contributor: Schuele, Allyson

Contributor: Tabritha, Ariel

Contributor: Toth, Michael B.

Contributor: Wiegand, Kimber

Conservator: Owen, Linda

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Bibliography

Miner, Dorothy. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Exhibition Catalogue. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949; cat. no.7, pl. 4.


Faye, Christopher Urdhal, and William Henry Bond. Supplement to the Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1962, p. 195, cat. no. 60.


De Ricci, S., and W.J. Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 818, cat no. 374.


Miner, Dorothy. "The Development of Medieval Illumination as Related to the Evolution of Book Design." Catholic Life Annual 1 (1958): 7-23, 95; p. 11 (fig. 3).


Swarzenski. "The Anhalt Morgan Gospels." Art Bulletin 31 (1949): 77-83; p. 79 (n. 25).


Baltimore Museum of Art. The Greek Tradition in Painting and the Minor Arts: An exhibition sponsored jointly by the Baltimore Museum of Art and the Walters Art Gallery from May 15 through June 25, 1939. Baltimore Museum of Art, 1939; p. 75, cat. no. 89.


Miner Dorothy, V.I. Carlson, and P. W. Filby. 2,000 Years of Calligraphy: A Three-Part Exhibition Organized by the Baltimore Museum of Art, Peabody Institute Library, and the Walters Art Gallery, 6 June-18 July 1965. Exhibition Catalogue. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1965; cat. no. 14, fig. 14.


Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book: Its History and Production. London: Faber and Faber, 1967; p. 166 (pl. III-22a).


Berkowitz, D.S., editor and organizer. In Remembrance of Creation: Evolution of Art and Scholarship in the Medieval and Renaissance Bible. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University, 1968; cat. no. 6, illus. of ff. 15, 62, 123.


Nordenfalk Carl. "A Tenth-Century Gospel Book in the Walters Art Gallery." In Gatherings in Honor of Dorothy E. Miner. Edited by Ursula E. McCracken, Lilian M. C. Randall, and Richard H. Randall Jr. Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery, 1973; pp. 139-170, figs. 1-12, 14-19.


Nordenfalk, Carl. Review of An Early Breton Gospel Book from the Collection of H.L. Bradfer-Lawrence (1887-1965) by F. Wormald and Jonathan J. G. Alexander. Burlington Magazine 120 (1978): 243-244; p. 244.


Cahn, W. "Three Eleventh-Century Manuscripts from Nevers." In Etudes d'art médievale offertes à Louis Grodecki. Paris, 1981; p. 71 (n. 51).


McKitterick, Rosamond. “Charles the Bald (823-877) and His Library: The Patronage of Learning.” English Historical Review 95, no. 374 (January 1980): 28-47.


Mütherich, F. "Ausstattung und Schmuck der Handschrift." In Das Evangeliar Otto III: Clm 4453 der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München, vol. 1. Edited by Fridolin Dressler et al. Frankfurt a. M., 1978; pp. 70, 124.


Jeauneau, Edouard. “Un ‘dossier’ carolingien sur la création de l’homme: Genèse I, 26-III, 24.” Revue des Études Augustiniennes 28 (1982): 112-132.


Randall, Lilian M.C. Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. 1. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989, pp. 3-4, cat. no. 1, fig. 1 (fol. 60v).


Staubach, Nikolaus. Rex Christianus, vol. 1. Weimar and Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 1993; p. 22.


Machielsen, John J. Clavis patristica pseudepigraphorum Medii Aevi: (Praefatio) Theologica exegetica, Vol II. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1994; pp. 11, 19.


McKitterick, Rosamond. The Frankish Kings and Culture in the Early Middle Ages. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Variorum, 1995; p. 104.


Bischoff, Bernhard. Katalog der festländischen Handschriften des neunten Jahrhunderts: Aachen-Lambach. Weisbaden: Otto Harrasowitz, 1998; p. 43, cat. no. 185.


Dutton, Paul Edward, and Herbert Kessler. The Poetry and Paintings of the First Bible of Charles the Bald. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1997; p. 127.


Steinhauser, Kenneth B. "Manuscripts: Florilegia and Epitomes." In Augustine through the Ages: An Encyclopedia. Edited by Allan Fitzgerald. Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1999; p. 526, cat. no. 3.


Gorman, Michael M. "Bernhard Bischoff's Handlist of Carolingian Manuscripts." Scrittura e Civiltà 25 (2001): 89-112; p. 98.


Gorman, Michael M. "The Manuscript Tradition of Augustine's De Genesi contra Manichaeos." Revue des études augustiniennes 47/2 (2001): 303-311; p. 306.


Diem, Albrecht. "Augustine, De opere monachorum." Monastic Manuscript Project. Lasted update January 1, 2013.


Bindings & Oddities

These are pages that we pulled aside that disrupted the flow of the manuscript reader. These may be bindings, inserts, bookmarks, and various other oddities.

Upper board outside

Upper board inside bookplate up

9v with pastedown stub

10r with pastedown stub

103v with pastedown stub

Lower board outside

Spine

Fore-edge

Head

Tail

Keywords
Treatise
Carolingian
French
Caroline minuscule
France
9th century
Devotion
Theology
Flemish
Flanders
YOUR COLLECTION

Share this Collection

Clear All

Note: This collection feature is in beta, and not yet fully functional. If you're interested in saving your collection to continue using it in the future, please us the share action.